Dalam kalimat bahasa Inggris, gerunds mempunyai peran sebagai:
- Gerunds as subject
- Gerunds as object
- Gerunds as subjective complement
- Gerunds as object of preposition
- Gerunds after word “NO”
- Gerunds after possessive adjective
- Gerunds after certain verbs
- Gerunds as appositive
Dalam kalimat, gerund berfungsi sebagai:
a. subjek (subject)
b. pelengkap subjek (subjective complement)
c. objek langsung (direct object)
d. objek preposisi (object of preposition)
e. aposisi (appositive)
Gerunds as subject, gerunds yang berfungsi sebagai subject:
Reading is not my hobby.
Swimming is better than running.
Hiking can be very strenuous.
Gerunds as object
I like reading.
She goes swimming every morning.
Their favorite sport is running.
Gerunds as Subjective Complement, Gerund sebagai pelengkap subjek dalam kalimat biasanya selalu didahului tobe yang terletak di antara subject dan subjective complement, contoh:
Her favorite sport is swimming.
Gerunds as object of preposition, Gerund sebagai objek dari preposisi terletak setelah preposisi, misalnya; for, before, without, in, at, after, dll.
I will wash the dishes after eating.
You cannot be rich man without working.
Gerunds after “NO”
Dalam kalimat larangan, kita sering memakai kata “No” dan setelahnya biasanya diletakkan verb + ing yaitu gerunds. Contoh:
No parking in this area!
Gerunds after possesive adjective, Gerunds juga sering kita jumpai setelah possessive adjective.
Thanks for your coming.
Gerunds after certain verbs, dalam bahasa Inggris, ada beberapa kata kerja tertentu yang bila kita ingin memasukan kata kerja sesudah kata kerja tersebut, maka kata kerja setelahnya harusnya berbentuk gerund atau verb + ing.
Berikut ini daftar kata kerja-kata kerja tersebut beserta contoh kalimatnya:
Admit : He admitted cheating on the test.
Advise : The doctor generally advised drinking low-fat milk.
Allow : Ireland doesn’t allow smoking in bars.
Anticipate : I anticipated arriving late.
Appreciate : I appreciated her helping me.
Avoid : He avoided talking to her.
Begin : I began learning Chinese.
can’t bear : He can’t bear having so much responsibility.
can’t help : He can’t help talking so loudly.
can’t see : I can’t see paying so much money for a car.
can’t stand : He can’t stand her smoking in the office.
Cease : The government ceased providing free healthcare.
Complete : He completed renovating the house.
Consider ; She considered moving to New York.
Continue : He continued talking.
Defend : The lawyer defended her making such statements.
Delay : He delayed doing his taxes.
Deny : He denied committing the crime.
Despise : She despises waking up early.
Discuss : We discussed working at the company.
Dislike : She dislikes working after 5 PM.
Mind : I don’t mind helping you.
Dread : She dreads getting up at 5 AM.
Encourage : He encourages eating healthy foods.
Enjoy : We enjoy hiking.
Finish : He finished doing his homework.
forget : I forgot giving you my book.
hate : I hate cleaning the bathroom.
Imagine : He imagines working there one day.
Involve : The job involves traveling to Japan once a month.
Keep : She kept interrupting me.
Like : She likes listening to music.
Love : I love swimming.
Mention : He mentioned going to that college.
Miss : She misses living near the beach.
neglect : Sometimes she neglects doing her homework.
permit : California does not permit smoking in restaurants.
Postpone : He postponed returning to Paris.
Practice : She practiced singing the song.
Prefer : He prefers sitting at the back of the movie theater.
propose : I proposed having lunch at the beach.
quit : She quit worrying about the problem.
Recall : Tom recalled using his credit card at the store.
Recollect : She recollected living in Kenya.
Recommend : Tony recommended taking the train.
regret : She regretted saying that.
Remember : I remember telling her the address yesterday.
Report : He reported her stealing the money.
require : The certificate requires completing two courses.
Resent : Nick resented Debbie’s being there.
Resist : He resisted asking for help.
Risk : He risked being caught.
Start : He started studying harder.
Stop : She stopped working at 5 o’clock.
Suggest : They suggested staying at the hotel.
Tolerate : I tolerated her talking.
Try : Sam tried opening the lock with a paperclip.
Understand : I understand his quitting.
Urge :They urge recycling bottles and paper
Gerunds as appositive, Gerund sebagai aposisi atau penegas dalam kalimat, contoh:
· His method, shooting and killing, eventually came to an end.
· She has a bad habit, gambling.
· Her favorite exercise, swimming in the pool, makes her body strong.
· That difficult work, sawing hard woo, makes him exhausted
1. ____ all the way make us tired.
c. We walk
d. We have walked
e. By walking
2. I don’t like ____ to another school
a. Mira moves
b. Mira she’s moving
c. Mora move
d. Mira’s moving
e. The moving of mira
3. I’m sorry for ____to move to another school
4. Little children are usually afraid of___ by their mother
b. To left
c. Being left
e. Been left
5. My brother has been away from home for years without ever ______to us
a. To write
b. To be written
c. Have written
6. Before ____his essay he read books on the subject
a. He writes
b. He has written
d. He has written
e. I am writing
7. My parent are happy about ____ the prize in the essay contest
a. My winning
b. I win
c. Me winning
d. That I win
e. I am winning
1. After ____ his pass, he has allowed to enter the building
b. Have shown
e. To show
2. Although dino has denied ____ the money, they are still suspecting him
c. To steal
e. Have stolen
3. The man sitting next to ratu said, “do you mind______?”
c. To smoke
d. My smoking
e. Be smoking
4. He must avoid____ too hard because of his poor health
a. Be working
b. In working
e. To be working
5. Would you mind_____ so loud?
a. To talk
b. To not talking
c. Not talking
d. You not talk
e. Not to talk.
6. Please excuse me______ you
a. To interrupt
e. For interrupting
7. He was sentenced to two years imprisonment he confessed _______
a. Steal the jewels
b. When stealing the jewels
c. He stole the jewels
d. To having stolen the jewels
e. To be stealing the jewels
1. I ____ to his behaving so rudely to ward his sister
2. I am looking forward to _____ a salary raise next month
b. Be getting
d. Have got
3. Have you considered _____ to an apartment closer to your office?
b. To move
e. To be moving
4. It’s hot in here. The air condition is not working’.
I think it only needs___________.”
a. To clean
e. Be cleaned
5. In her letter my friend said that she was looking forward _________ from me again.
a. To hearing
b. To hear
d. Having heard
6. What does this song remind you of?
_____ with my first date.
a. Io dance
b. To dance
d. To be dancing
7. We always try to avoid _______ preserved foods.
b. To consume
d. We consume
e. Being consumed
1. It’s difficult ______ smoking
a. The give up
b. Give up
c. Given up
d. To be given up
e. To be giving up
2. We did not know how ________ him stop drinking
c. to make
d. to be made
3. since my father and my mother are both working, we usually go ________ on Sundays
a. to shop
b. they shop
d. for shopping
4. I remember ______ in his town when traffic wasn’t too heavy get.
a. Be driving
b. We driving
d. Our driving
e. To drive.
|1. I can’t help (feel) worried about the situation in the Middle East.
2. I think most people prefer (ride) in comfortable cars to (walk) .
3. She loves (swim) in the lake.
4. There’s no (deny) that he enjoys (listen) to his own voice.
5. Don’t keep on (shout) like that; you will wake up your mother.
6. I enjoy (rest) in the afternoon after (try) to finish (do) my English homework.
7. She likes (begin) pieces of knitting but hates (finish) them.
8. I dread (take) examinations for fear of (fail) .
9. I couldn’t resist (buy) the lovely apples.
10. I wouldn’t miss (see) that lovely film for the world!
Exercise on Infinitive and Gerund
Complete the sentences with the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses.
- She is good at (dance) .
- He is crazy about (sing) .
- I don’t like (play) cards.
- They are afraid of (swim) in the sea.
- You should give up (smoke) .
- Sam dreams of (be) a popstar.
- He is interested in (make) friends.
- My uncle is afraid of (go) by plane.
- We insist on (cook) the dinner ourselves.
|Yuri was in his first year at university, studying History. He was rather a lazy student, and he tended to avoid (work) whenever he could. In the middle of the semester, his history professor gave out an assignment, due in two weeks. Yuri intended (do) the assignment, but he postponed(write) it for a week. The following week, he forgot (do) it. The night before the assignment was due, he suddenly remembered it, and rushed to the library. He tried (read) as much as possible on the topic, but there wasn’t enough time. Yuri considered (ask) for more time to do his paper, but the History professor was known to be very tough on students, so finally he decided (cheat) and copy his paper from somewhere else. He found an old article on the same topic, and quickly typed it out. The next day, he submitted the paper.The following week, he was alarmed (see) the professor approaching him, looking angry. “Is this your own work, or did you copy it?” asked the professor. Yuri denied(copy) the paper.
“If you expect me (believe) that, you must think I am very stupid,” said the professor. “Every word is taken from an article I wrote myself five years ago. Did you really think I would forget (write) it?”
1. A friend of mine was accused of stealing food
(I think this is a gerund as it is the object of the verb accused?)
2. My wife is out shopping right now
(I think this is not a gerund as shopping is the main verb?)
3. When Sarah is playing music she is happy
(I think this is not a gerund, playing is the verb?)
4.Can you feel my heart beating?
(I think here beating is not a gerund but an adjective describing the action of the heart?, even though ‘heart beating’ is the object of the verb ‘feel’)
5. James was washing up when I saw him yesterday
(I think here washing is the main verb and not a gerund?)
6. I regret spending so much money on shoes
(I think spending is a gerund as it is the object of the verb ‘regret’)
7. The grass wants cutting this weekend
(I think cutting is a gerund as it is the object of the verb ‘wants’)